Jorge, Plants, Trees

In sharp contrast to the frosty mornings and cold evenings, fiery hues and bright coloured fruit can liven up your Autumn. Cultivars of crabapple and rowan can produce pink, yellow and red fruit, which are perfect for wildlife, while maples and beech can create gorgeous palettes of red, orange and yellow. Now without further ado, here are six trees with fantastic autumn colour.

Maple Trees

An essential part of Autumn iconography, the red maple (Acer rubrum) can be found throughout the UK’s public parks. Introduced all the way back in 1656, the tree will produce a profusion of red, orange and yellow, before turning a vivid red. Highly versatile, the tree can be found growing in a wide range of conditions in its native North America and is suitable for urban settings as it is tolerant of pollution.

Unlike its larger cousin, the japanese maple (Acer palmatum) is suitable for all gardens and can be grown in containers. Indigenous to East Asia, the tree can be found growing at heights up to 1100m, hence its other name the mountain maple. Come Autumn, the tree’s dissected leaves will turn a deep red. The palmatum has many quirky cultivars including ‘Butterfly’ with its cream-tinged green leaves that turn pink; ‘Atropurpureum’ with scarlet red Autumn foliage; and ‘Sango-kaku’ with its gorgeous coral coloured bark and stunning foliage.

Beech Trees

Picture Credit: Jean-Pol GRANDMONT licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Another typical Autumnal tree, the common beech (Fagus sylvatica) is a large, majestic tree with great spectrum of colours. Reaching up to 50 metres in the wild, although commonly 30, it was once believed that the tree is native to southern England, but not the North where it is sometimes removed. Researchers now believe the tree was first introduced to Southern England by Neolithic humans who sought its nuts for food, making it a non-native species. Trees in the North, on the other hand, were introduced by Vikings in the first millennium. Thankfully, most trees sold are limited in height by their rootstock, and are thus suitable for most gardens.

The Sweet Gum

Picture Credit: Famartin licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0.

Similar to maple and beech, the sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua ) is notable for its conflagration of colour with its sharp five-pointed leaves turning red, yellow and purple. First introduced to Europe in 1681 by John Banister, one of the first university trained botanist, the species is also notable for deeply ridged bark, known as alligator bark in America.

Crabapples

Severely underrated, the humble crabapple will produce attractive foliage and bright and colourful fruits, which can last well into winter. The species is hardy, versatile and great for wildlife, being native to the UK. The tree will produce beautiful blossom come Spring and serves as a great pollinator for apples. Notable cultivars include ‘Butterball’, ‘John-Downie’, ‘Evereste’ and ‘Red Sentinel’ with yellow, scarlet-orange, red and yellow-orange fruit respectively. Special is ‘Butterball’ that can produce six different colours throughout the year.

Rowan Trees

Similar to the crabapple, rowans produce fantastic coloured berries that can last well into winter, providing an essential source of sustenance for birds. Hardy and versatile the species is suitable for most soils, and with many different sized cultivars, there is a tree for every garden.The most famous is the native Sorbus aucuparia with red berries and slender leaves, which turn yellow in Autumn. Simply stunning, however, are the cultivars ‘Pink Pagoda’ and ‘Joseph Rock’. The former produces gorgeous pink berries, which are a favourite for birds, while the latter looks amazing with its deep red pinnate leaves contrasted with bright yellow berries.


Cherry Trees

Commonly thought as a tree for Spring, many cherries are ideal ornamentals for Autumn hues. One of the best has to be the ‘Autumnalis Rosea’ that will flower intermittently from November to April with clusters of small semi-double rosy-pink blossom. Other varieties such as ‘Fragrant Cloud’, ‘Sargent’s Cherry’ and ‘Umineko’ will produce fiery displays, with the Sargents among the first trees to colour up. ‘Fragrant Cloud’ is especially beautiful with its upright form. Worthy of note is the ‘Tibetan Cherry’ with its smart coppery-brown bark that will look beautiful regardless of season.

Jorge at PrimroseJorge works in the Primrose marketing team. He is an avid reader, although struggles to stick to one topic!

His ideal afternoon would involve a long walk, before settling down for scones.

Jorge is a journeyman gardener with experience in growing crops.

See all of Jorge’s posts.

Garden Design, Gardening, Liam, Plants, Trees, Wildlife

Cherry trees are one of the nation’s, if not the world’s, favourite species of ornamental tree. However, there is another tree which flowers heavy, remains small but also gives the added appeal of bright and colourful fruit; the humble crabapple. Often overlooked by gardeners a crabapple tree is fully hardy and well suited to the UK climate with a fantastic spring bloom. With smaller growth than most cherry trees they are perfect for a more modern, compact garden. The benefits and aesthetic achieved with a crabapple tree can be a refreshing surprise.

In many ways the crabapple serves a national duty. Native to these shores they tolerate the worst of the British weather and can be grown in almost any soil type as long as it is well-drained. Nearly all are recognised wildlife benefactors and so are fantastic for up-keeping our national biodiversity. There really should be a crab-apple for every home!

Crab-Apple Blossom
Beautiful Crab-Apple Blossom

Most crabapple varieties produce a bloom heavy enough to rival that of any cherry tree and can come in a variety of different tones. You may get light white or deep pink, sweetly scented flowers. Flowering in Spring they are one of the first to add colour to the garden. This is an essential helping hand to pollinating insects coming out of winter. All of this keeps the rest of your garden healthy and looking great!

What a crabapple gives you over an ornamental cherry tree however is the colourful, jewel-like fruit which can hang on well into winter and even through to the new year depending on variety. The tree therefore gives you a rich and varying pallet of tones potentially for over half a year! The deeper roots of a Crabapple also make them a safer bet to maintaining a healthy lawn than a cherry blossom.

But that’s not all, the fruit serves more functions than those purely aesthetic. Despite the fact that nearly all varieties are far too sour to eat in their natural state crabapples serve a host of culinary functions. Rich in pectin crab apples are used for making fantastic jams and jellies which can be served on bread, scones or used to compliment various meats. And if you won’t eat the fruit, birds and small mammals certainly will in those tough winter months.

If you already own apple trees then you’ve just been given another huge reason to love the crabapple. Crabapples can cross pollinate nearly all other varieties of apple as long as they both have a similar flowering period. It is for this reason that crabapples are often dotted around apple orchards to offer variety and pollinate the edible cultivars enriching their flavour.

Bird Enjoying Crabapples During Winter

So there you have it; if you have an ornamental cherry (or two) in the garden, or if you are just looking for something a bit different then look no further than the crabapple. Hardy, beautiful and versatile they continue to serve us well and are becoming increasingly important as our gardens become smaller and our native species come under increasing attack.

Liam at PrimroseLiam works in the buying team at Primrose. He is passionate about studying other cultures, especially their history. A lover of sports his favourite pass-time is football, either playing or watching it! In the garden Liam is particularly interested in growing your own food.

See all of Liam’s posts.

Charlie, Grow Your Own, How To, Plants

As the autumn approaches, and summer’s rays (or rain in this summer’s case) start to fade, thoughts can turn to the harvest. Whether you’re an urban harvester seeking out the best picked fruit in your local market or even supermarket aisle, driving down to a local orchard for a spot of apple picking, or gathering in your very own harvest from apple trees in your garden, look no further than Primrose’s guide to apple harvesting to help you get only ripe, unspoilt fruit in your larder.

A Pick Your Own Orchard

One of the perplexing things about apple harvesting is the dazzling variety of types of apple available to harvest, and the different seasons in which the apples can be harvested. One of the most popular supermarket varieties, for example, the Gala apple, is harvestable from May to September. Whereas one of the most common non-commercial apples, Cox’s Orange Pippin is generally harvestable from around mid-September. Producers tend to favour the Gala over the Cox because the latter does not tend to keep well after harvesting – but it is still grown commercially to brew cider.

So it is important to consider, before your visit to a pick-your-own orchard, whether you are after apples to eat, apples to cook or apples to make a refreshing cider, and whether it is important that the apples keep for a long period. What you are going to use the apples for will influence the quality of apples you need.

Tips for visiting orchards:

  • Plan your visit! There is a great site at http://www.pickyourownfarms.org.uk/ that showcases where the pick your own sites are in the UK near you.
  • Be clear on the varieties the orchard in question contains, and plan your visit when the variety you want is in season.
  • When it comes to picking, you will know the fruit is ripe when the starches are beginning to turn to sugar. However, it is probably not advisable to do a taste test on each apple you want to pick!
  • The colour of a ripe apple changes depending on the variety, so your best bet at a pick your own orchard is to ask the farmer which trees are ripe. He will be able to tell you what characteristics to look for in each variety and should have a record of how many weeks it was since the tree flowered.
  • Watch out for bruised apples. Even if you just want to press the fruit to make cider, bruises often indicate rot and despite the famous saying, one rotten apple really can spoil the whole batch!
  • Don’t shake the tree! This can cause other apples to fall which may then spoil. Instead, pick the apples in a twisting motion to free them from the branches. This should be done gently, leaving the stem intact.
  • Place the fruit in the basket or container, do not throw them as this can cause them to bruise. A bruised apple rots easily, as it is the hard skin that ensures its longevity.


Harvesting apples at home.

If you’re lucky enough to have an apple tree in your back garden, harvesting can be done at home. If you don’t, why not? Primrose have a wide variety of apple trees available now for purchase for delivery in November, to ensure they are bedded down nicely in your garden in time for the spring.

Harvesting apples at home can be easier, as while not good etiquette at a pick your own orchard, shaking the tree is permissible on your own property. A good tactic is to place a sheet under the tree and then shake the tree onto the sheet, this will ensure only the ripe apples fall from the tree. However, many of the other apple picking tips above still apply.

Follow this advice and you’re sure to have a bumper crop of apples this autumn. Don’t forget to check out our guides to apple storage and cider making for advice on what to do with your apples once you’ve harvested them.

 

CharlieCharlie works in the Primrose marketing team, mainly in online marketing.

When not writing for the Primrose Blog, Charlie likes nothing more than a good book and a cool cider.

To see the rest of Charlie’s posts, click here.

 

 

Garden Tools, Gardening, Guest Posts

Copper Tools Collection

Origins

The first metal tools ever forged were likely made from copper. As a building material, copper was far softer than stone, but that made it far more malleable and easier to shape for different tasks. Copper was soon replaced by bronze, however, which is a far stronger material. Combined with the experimental designs created with copper, the bronze age gave rise to new forms of tools that could perform a number of different, specific roles.

Original smelters added arsenic to copper to create bronze, but the toxic fumes emitted by the arsenic during smelting affected the eyes, lungs and skin. Tin was the next point of interest; the bronze alloy created by a 90% copper – 10% tin composition was stronger and easier to cast than copper alone. When polished, bronze would also break out in a golden sheen that mimicked the look of a true golden tool. Tools and weapons created in copper soon became as much about prestige and status as practicality.

Copper Hand Tool

Viktor Schauberger

The most famous advocate for bronze tools was the biomimicry experimenter and naturalist, Viktor Schauberger. Born in Austria, Schauberger was a forester who rejected academic training to remain in the woods and mountains to run his own experiments. Although most of his inventions centred on different uses for water, his great exception was his copper tool project.

After years of experiments and observations, Schauberger concluded that cultivating soil with copper instruments would be more beneficial to the Earth and lead to healthier plant growth. Primarily, he believed that using metal tools, which decay and rust far quicker than copper or bronze, was incompatible with the process of plant growth. How could one justifying using a decaying tool to help make a plant grow? He also surmised that growth best occured in cool conditions – heat, he argued, was primarily used to decay or kill, rather than to invigorate. Iron tools, with a greater frictional resistance than copper and bronze, increases the temperature of the soil during use. Bronze, however, stays cool.

Finally, Schauberger concluded that iron, as a sparking metal, depleted the electrical charge of rising groundwater, leaving less for the plants. Copper and bronze are non-sparking metals, meaning that groundwater retained its electric charge as it rose. His observations may have seemed wild conjecture to some, but in the late 1940s, fourteen trials across eight crops proved his theories correct. Seven crops were cultivated with a traditional steel plough, and the other seven with a copper plough. Results were consistent across the board – crops cultivated by copper bore larger, healthier yields with fewer pests.

Copper Tools

If you wish to run your own garden experiment, Primrose has launched a range of beautiful copper tools that will surely stand the test of time. Although aesthetically pleasing, these tools are made from high-grade, work-hardened bronze that will make light work of your gardening tasks whilst helping cultivate the soil with beneficial copper trace elements.

Copper Weeder

 

Ross Bramble graduated from university with a degree in journalism, and now works in the product loading department at Primrose. Ross enjoys researching the history of our most innovative products and using this to write about the products on site.

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